Image Credits

Statue of Salazar, 1937 CFT003_102354 

Biblioteca de Arte-Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian

Biblioteca de Arte-Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian has generously made available most of the photographs on the website. These are from the studios of brothers Horácio Novais and Mário Novais taken over some fifty years during the Estado Novo.

Link to the Gulbenkian image sets of Flickr.


Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (National Archive of Torre do Tombo)

Tourism posters, photographs and planning documents from the assault on the Santa Maria, posters promoting the new constitution and election are from the collection of Portugal's National Archive of Torre do Tombo.

Images are used here for educational purposes only and cannot be reproduced for any other purpose, including publications, without written permission from the National Archive of Torre do Tombo.

Link to the Arquivo Nacional Torre do Tombo

O Livro da Terceira Classe, 1958

Additional Image Sources:

Other image sources include children's schoolbooks from the New State period that have been digitized by MIT Visualizing Cultures:

  • O Livro da Primeira Classe, 1954
  • O Livro da Segunda Classe, 1958
  • O Livro da Terceira Classe, 1958
  • Série Escolar Educação, Livro de Leitura para a 4ª Classe, 1951

Other image sources include:

  • Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal (
  • The Wolfsonian-Florida International University